This project addresses this fundamental question by systematically investigating the subjective, behavioural, and neural correlates of sense of agency for gaze-mediated actions, adopting a Bayesian approach to directly compare actions performed with the hand vs the eyes.

Keywords: Sensorimotor Integration, Oculomotor System, Sense Of Agency, Eye-Tracking, Gaze Agency, Sensory Substitution, Motor Augmentation


We constantly use eye movements to explore the world. Yet, when we want to act upon the world, we must instead use our hands: we cannot turn on a light by simply staring at a switch. Or… can we? Current eye-tracking technologies make already possible to control computers, play games, and even drive cars using only our eyes. While this trend is likely to steadily increase in the next future, no scientific study has yet investigated whether actions performed with the eyes produce the same sense of agency and responsibility as ordinary hand movements. Given that humans did not evolve with the ability to perform gaze-mediated actions, can we really count on “acting with the eyes” as we do with our hands?

At this stage we are:

Testing whether the classical findings about sensorimotor integration for hand movements also apply to eye movements

Developing new gaze-contingent paradigms for the study of “gaze agency”

Exploring the potential theoretical and practical implications of this project in fields such as sensory substitution, sensory augmentation, and motor augmentation

Our latest research updates:

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Interested? Find out more:

A preprint of a recent study where we showed that eye movements can be coupled with tactile feedback in a way that resembles sensorimotor integration of touch during hand movements (LINK TO BE ADDED SOON)

− Cataldo, A., Di Luca, M. & Hayward, V. Touching with the eyes: distal projection of touch from oculomotor signal. (In prep).

Some links to the latest developments in eye-tracking and gaze-contingent paradigms

Driving a car using your eyes. 
The future of computing with eye tracking. 
The World’s First Eye-Controlled Wheelchair
Eye tracking technology in virtual reality. 

Antonio Cataldo
Antonio Cataldo

Project Lead

Ophelia Deroy
Ophelia Deroy


Vincent Hayward
Vincent Hayward