When we grab a cup, move, watch a movie, we effortlessly integrate information from different senses into a single perception. But can we determine whether one of these senses was more reliable? Importantly, this question tells us how integrated our conscious experience is : can we disentangle components, once they are ‘unified’ in experience?

Keywords: Confidence, Perception, Multisensory, Integration 


Using two senses rather than one makes us better. But does it make us also surer? Consider this detour : You hear a story from one friend, or you hear the same story, by two independent friends. 

In this project, we consider whether we are, as it seems we should, be more confident of what we perceive with two senses, even though we may not be more correct . We also consider how this confidence reflects the confidence we have in each sensory information : Is it an average? is it related to the reliability of each sense? 

At this stage we are:

Testing how confidence works in cases where we use two modalities or one, twice

Examining what it tells us about metacognition, and whether it accesses information that we don’t consciously separate

Investigating the consequences for multisensory illusions, and users interfaces.

Our latest research updates:

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Interested? Find out more:

Our papers on the topic:

Deroy, O., Spence, C., & Noppeney, U. (2016). Metacognition in multisensory perception. Trends in cognitive sciences, 20(10), 736-747.

Deroy, O., Chen, Y. C., & Spence, C. (2014). Multisensory constraints on awareness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 369(1641), 20130207.

Deroy, O., Faivre, N., Lunghi, C., Spence, C., Aller, M., & Noppeney, U. (2016). The complex interplay between multisensory integration and perceptual awareness. Multisensory research, 29(6-7), 585-606.

Ophelia Deroy
Ophelia Deroy

Project Lead

Isabelle Garzorz
Isabelle Garzorz


Lucas Battich
Lucas Battich